Population is the number of people at any given place, at a particular time. It is not static and is determined by a confluence of three processes: fertility (number of births in a community), mortality (number of deaths in a community), and migration (number of people moving in and out of a community). A population is an aggregate set of individuals with varied characteristics, but age and sex are the two primary classifications.
Why adopt a population and development perspective?
Population dynamics influence all aspects of human, social, and economic development. As such, working on population issues is an important step to achieve sustainable development and meet the Millennium Development Goals, a list of benchmarks identified by the United Nations as the basic needs that global society must meet in order to significantly reduce, if not eradicate, poverty by 2015.
The Philippine Center for Population and Development has adopted a framework that shows the interrelations between the processes and outcomes of population and development.
Source: Training Module on Integrated Population and Development Planning. Integrated Population and Development Planning. NEDA. 1993.
Fertility, mortality and migration – the three identified population processes – inform a community’s size, population distribution according to age and sex, and distribution across its various areas. These, in turn, affect the consumption of goods and services, the utilization of human, physical and environmental resources, and other processes needed to run a community. These development processes lead to concrete outcomes for individual members of a population, such as employment and income, educational attainment, and quality of health – all of which will affect a person’s response regarding the three population processes.